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Schema FAQs

What is a "Schema" in Murmurations?

See our complete definition of a Schema in the Common Terms page. Basically a Schema is a way to define the data to collect from a network, and Murmurations enables you to monitor any changes made to that data by the participants in the network.

Are there any required fields in a Schema?

There is only one required property in a Murmurations Schema: the linked_schemas field, which is an array of strings that lists the Schema (or Schemas) against which a profile has been created.

For example, if you want to create a Profile that can be validated against both the Organizations schema and the Complementary Currencies schema, your Profile document would have to include:

  "linked_schemas": [
  // The rest of your profile...

What is a profile_url?

The profile_url is the public web address where a Murmurations Profile can be accessed by the Index for indexing. Here is a profile_url for the Open Co-op:

When this profile_url ( is sent to the Index, its contents will be downloaded and validated by the Index. If validation is successful against all of the linked_schemas listed in the Profile, it will be recorded in the Index.

What is a primary_url?

The primary_url field is where a Profile records its canonical web address. We can see the primary_url being used in the Open Co-op Murmurations Profile:

  // ...
  "primary_url": "",
  // ...

The primary_url references an organization's (or individual's) primary web address. If a Profile is self-hosted on the organization's website, the primary_url will be the same domain as the profile_url, as is the case for the Open Co-op's Profile referenced in the FAQ above.

Priority should always be given to a Profile whose profile_url is hosted at the same domain as the primary_url. In other words, a Profile that is hosted at "" and claiming "" as it's primary_url should have more weight than another Profile hosted at some other domain claiming "" as it's primary_url.

How is the primary_url derived from a website address?

Let's assume the website address is When the address is converted into a primary_url we remove the protocol (https://), the www. subdomain and the trailing /, leaving as the primary_url.

Only the www. subdomain is removed. All other subdomains are kept as part of the primary_url. For the complete details of primary_url processing, see this GitHub issue: